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The police investigate if laws have been broken. They can charge you if they believe you have broken the law. The police will tell you the date on which you must first appear before the court for your charges.
It is then up to the court to hear the evidence and decide if you are guilty and what the penalty should be.
Many cases can now be dealt with by the magistrates court. The magistrate decides both guilt and penalty. In the higher courts (district court, Supreme Court) the jury decides if you are guilty and the judge decides the penalty.
This flowchart(PDF, 105KB) explains what happens after being charged with an offence.