Parenting arrangements

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    All families are different, and when making arrangements for children or applying for a parenting order, it’s important to make sure the arrangements are practical and in the children’s best interests.

    When making a parenting order, the court must consider what’s in the children’s best interests.

    • safety, violence, neglect, abuse or other harm of children and the significant people who care for them
    • views expressed by the child
    • developmental, psychological and cultural needs of the child
    • capacity of the people who have parental responsibility to provide for the child’s needs
    • benefit to the child of having a relationship with their parents, so long as it is safe to do so
    • any other relevant circumstance
    • an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander child’s right to enjoy their culture.
    If your children are in someone else's care and you think they are in danger, contact the police. It’s a matter for the police whether they take action. In an emergency call 000. Get legal advice.

    Parents have duties and responsibilities in relation to their children whether they’re separated, divorced, re-married, re-partnered or were never in a relationship with each other.

    When making arrangements for the children or applying for a parenting order, it’s important to make sure the arrangement is in the children’s best interests. Read more about what to consider when making parenting arrangements.

    A Family Relationships Centre, Legal Aid Queensland or a family dispute resolution service may be able to help you reach an agreement.

    Parenting arrangements may cover:

    • where the children live
    • who the children spend time and communicate with
    • schooling or childcare
    • medical issues
    • religious or cultural practices
    • financial support for the children
    • parental responsibility for the arrangements
    • how those with parental responsibility will communicate with each other.

    There are three different types of written parenting arrangements:

    Who can be involved in parenting arrangements?

    The law recognises that every family is different and that people other than parents (such as grandparents and extended family), may play an important role in the children’s lives.

    Where it’s in the children’s best interests, and safe to do so, grandparents, extended family and other people who are concerned for the welfare of children, can be included in a parenting plan, consent order or parenting order. Both parents must be part of any agreement or order in relation to the children. Read more about caring for children when you are not the parent.

    If you agree

    If both parents agree, you don’t need to go to court to formalise your agreement. You can record your agreement as a parenting plan or a consent order.

    Parenting plans

    A parenting plan is a written agreement setting out the care arrangements for children. It’s signed and dated by the children's parents and is an informal way of agreeing on these arrangements.

    It doesn’t have to be in any specific format or witnessed.

    You should get legal advice before making a parenting plan.

    A parenting plan can be changed at any time by making another written agreement which is signed and dated by the children's parents.

    Parenting plans aren’t legally enforceable. If you already have a parenting order or a consent order, a parenting plan made after the order will make any terms of the original order, which are varied, legally unenforceable. An exception to this is where the original order includes a rule that the order can’t be changed this way. If you are planning to vary a parenting order or a consent order by making a parenting plan, you should get legal advice before doing so.

    If you apply for a parenting order after making a parenting plan, the court doesn’t have to follow the parenting plan, but the court will consider it when deciding what kind of orders to make.

    Consent orders

    You can make your agreement legally binding by applying to the court for consent orders—a written agreement (or parenting plan) approved by the court. Consent orders have the same legal effect as other parenting orders.

    To apply for consent orders, you’ll need to complete the approved court form — Application for consent orders kit and attach the proposed orders. You will also need to complete an Annexure to draft consent parenting order. This should be filed with the court at the same time as the application for consent orders.

    The consent order must be signed, dated and witnessed by an appropriate witness (eg a Justice of the Peace). You don’t need a lawyer to apply for consent orders, but we recommend getting legal advice as it will affect your future rights. There is a fee for filing an application for consent orders.

    If the court approves your application for consent orders, a court seal will be placed on the consent order documents and both parents will be given a copy of the documents for your records.

    Consent orders can only be changed by a further consent order, parenting plan or parenting order.

    Get legal advice.


    amica is a secure online service that helps separating couples to:

    • make parenting arrangements if they have children
    • divide their money and property simply.

    amica can help you negotiate and communicate online with your former partner to reach an amicable agreement. If you can agree on a property settlement and parenting arrangements with your former partner, this can potentially cut your legal costs and save you money.

    amica is not suitable to split/divide superannuation.

    amica guides you through a step-by-step process, and offers you information and support along the way to help you reach an agreement.

    amica was developed by National Legal Aid and Legal Aid commissions including Legal Aid Queensland, with funding from the Commonwealth Attorney-General’s Department.

    Find out more at

    If you disagree

    If you disagree, you can apply to the court for a parenting order.

    Before applying you should try to reach an agreement through family dispute resolution. You must include a certificate from a family dispute resolution practitioner with your application saying that you’ve been to, or attempted to go to, family dispute resolution, or that it’s their opinion that it’s not appropriate for you to go. There are some exceptions to this — get legal advice.

    Parenting orders

    A parenting order is an order made by the court about your parental responsibilities and arrangements for your children.

    The Family Law Act sets out what the court must consider when deciding what kind of parenting orders to make.

    A parenting order is legally enforceable and there can be serious consequences for disobeying an order.

    Get legal advice.

    Do I need legal advice?

    You may need legal advice if:

    • you or your children are at risk of harm
    • you’re thinking about signing a parenting plan or consent orders, and before you file consent orders with the court
    • you’re going to court to get a parenting order
    • you have an existing court order and you want to make changes to the arrangements for your children
    • you disagree about what’s in the child’s best interests
    • you’ve signed a parenting plan or consent orders that you didn't agree with because you felt threatened or intimidated.

    Get legal advice

    We may give legal advice about making agreements for the arrangements for children.

    The following organisations may be able to give legal advice.

    Community legal centres give legal advice on a range of topics. Contact them to find out if they can help.

    Women's Legal Service gives free legal advice to women on areas of law including domestic violence and family law.

    Queensland Law Society can refer you to a specialist private solicitor for advice or representation.

    Family Relationship Advice Line gives information about the family law system in Australia.

    Who else can help?

    These organisations may be able to help. They don’t give legal advice.

    Family Relationship Centres gives information, referrals, dispute resolution and advice on parenting after separation.

    Federal Circuit and Family Court of Australia deals with family law cases. Court forms and information on family court processes are available online.

    Department of Child Safety, Seniors and Disability Services investigates reports of harm or suspected child abuse against any child under 18.

    DV Connect — gives counselling, information, referral and help including refuge and shelter placement and crisis intervention to people affected by domestic violence. They also manage the Pets in crisis project, which arranges foster care for pets while people affected by domestic violence are in temporary accommodation.

    Mensline (DV Connect) is a free, confidential telephone counselling, referral and support service for men.

    Relationships Australia offers a range of men and family relationship services, including counselling, family dispute resolution, assistance on relationship and parenting matters and education courses.

    Queensland Police can help if you or your children are at risk of harm.

    Disclaimer: This content is for general purposes only and not legal advice. If you have a legal problem, please contact us or speak to a lawyer. View our full disclaimer.

    Last updated 9 February 2023